doc. dr. TANJA ŽIGON – KONTRABANDITI, RAZBOJNICI, KRIJUMČARI? IZVJŠTAJI O KRIJUMČARIMA I TERMINOLOŠKI PROBLEMI SLOVENSKIH IZDAVAČA SA ŠIRENJEM NOVE “PROFESIJE” UZ RAPALSKU GRANICU
Cilj ove studije je pokazati kako su slovenske novine pisale o krijumcarskim radnjama uz talijansko-jugoslavensku granicu poslije Prvog svijetskog rata, kako uz liniju prije mirovnog ugovora, tako i uz kasniju rapalsku granicu, uspostavljenu 1920. godine. U studiji će se istraziti tri slovenske novine: konzervativne novine “Slovenec”, liberalne “Slovenski narod” i političke “Jutro”koje su osnovane zbog neslaganja između starih liberala (novine “Slovenski narod”) i političke struje mladih liberala. Temeljeći se na istraživanju te tri novine, studija će pokazati koliko pažnje su mediji posvećivali toj “novoj” praksi kojom su ljudi zarađivali za život. Istražit će se i uloga koju su mediji imali u prikazivanju krijumčarenja i koji stav su mediji držali glede krijumčarenja. Ispitat će se i terminološki aspekt jer, kako se čini, novinski urednici se nisu mogli dogovoriti oko korištenja jednog termina kojim su se referirali na ilegalne aktivnosti uz granicu.
dr. MILAN TROBIČ – RAZBOJNICI I KRIJUMČARI
Teritorij Slovenije je oduvijek bio ispresijecan granicama država i gradova koje nisu značile samo linije nego i izazove različitim oblicima legalne i ilegalne trgovine. Posebno, razbojništvo i krijumčarenje ne bi trebalo izjednačavati. Autor analizira i odvaja jednu i drugu formu ilegalne trgovine na temelju terenskog istraživanja te pisanih i drugih izvora. Stanovnici graničnih područja imaju još uvijek poseban odnos prema razbojnicima, krijumčarima s jedne i prema državi i zakonu s druge strane, posebno onim zakonima koji zabranjuju određene aktivnosti i njegovim represivnim tijelima koji nadgledaju provođenje zakona. Odnosi se razlikuju od slučaja do slučaja.
PETRA JURJAVČIČ – RAZBOJNIK U PODRUČJU ČRNOG VRHA TIJEKOM DVA RATA I U GODINAMA NAKON RATA
Črni vrh sa okolnim zaseocima je primorsko selo koje graniči s regijom Notranjska. U prošlosti je to područje prvenstveno bilo poljoprivredno dok se danas pretvara u prigradsko područje, iako se je nekoliko farmi očuvalo. Stanovnici Črnog Vrha su se s krijumčarenjem, u večoj mjeri, upoznali tijekom talijanske okupacije kada su se našli na granici između Kraljevstva Italije i Kraljevine SHS. Krijumčarilo se zbog ideoloških razloga – krijumčarenje časopisa, novina, knjiga na slovenskom jeziku, ali i iz potrebe za preživljavanjem – krijučarenje brašna, mesa, duhana, cikorije, pa i zbog veće zarade – krijučarenje konja i volova. Krijumčarenje se nastavilo i u godinama nakon Drugog svijetskog rata kada je nekadašnja regija Venezia Giulia bila podijeljena na Zonu A i Zonu B.
ROBERT ZENERAL, Društvo »Bez granica« – NOĆNE STAZE
Projekt uključuje rekonstrukciju krijumčarskih staza na temelju sjećanja stanovnika Drenove i Pašca uz upotrebu GPS uređaja. Staze će se zabilježiti uz pomoć Garmin GPS uređaja, potom će se kreirati interaktivni GIS sistem koji se temelji na Google Maps tehnologiji te će se na taj način sakupljeni podaci vizualizirati. Podatke će nadopuniti fotografije iz prošlosti ali i sadašnjosti. U ovom trenutku se objedinjuje zbirka lokalnih fotografija. Sakupljene fotografije su važne zbog prepoznavanja pojedinaca, nekadašnji sudionici u krijumčarskim aktivnostima će odlučiti žele li ostati anonimni ili se prezentirati punim imenom i prezimenom.
ROBERT TASNADI – RASKRIŽJA ŽELJEZNE ZAVJESE
Sándor Goják, koji je 1960-ih radio kao graničar, osnovao je u selu Felsőcsatár, u Mađarskoj, maleni privatni muzej posvećen Željeznoj zavjesi. Sakuplja predmete vezane za nekadašnju granicu čiju je maketu izgradio u svom seoskom vrtu. Muzej nije samo zbirka predmeta iz tog razdoblja, nego i zbirka sjećanja i priča njega i njegovih suvremenika.
dr. MELITA RICHTER – SJEĆANJA IZ ŽIVOTA SA/PREKO GRANICE
Projekt Sjećanja iz života sa/preko granice želi se posvetiti desetljećima komunikacije između dva društveno-politička sistema; ljudima koji su svakodnevno prelazili granicu (Jugoslaveni koji su odlazili u kupovinu u Trst i žene iz pograničnog istarskog područja koje su radile u Italiji i svakodnevno se vračale kući.) U tom razdoblju intenzivne razmjene razvilo se krijumčarenje kao korektor razlika između dva sistema. Je li to bilo pravo krijumčarenje, u klasičnom smislu, ili način harmonizacije razlika i želja za smanjenjem jaza u razvoju dvaju povijesnih iskustava.
doc. dr. STEPHAN STEINER – KRIJUMČARENJE KNJIGA – KRIJUMČARENJE IDEJA
Trijumfu Reformacije u većini austrijskih nasljednih zemalja tijekom 16. i 17. stoljeća slijedilo je razdoblje Protureformacije prilikom kojeg su Katolici korak po korak vračali svoja područja. U većini mjesta je protestantizam nestao, no u nekim područjima Koruške, Gornje Austrije i Stajerske ostaci reformatorskog pokreta su djelovali ilegalno. Kako nisu imali u blizini protestantske svećenike, potražnja za protestantskim knjigama bila je velika. Tada se pojavio novi tip krijumčara tzv. nosioci knjiga (Büchertrager). Večinom su to bili seljaci koji su bili voljni otputovati daleko i riskirati da bi tajnoj protestantskoj zajednici omogućili opstanak. Knjige su krijumčarili iz Njemačke, a tehnike skrivanja knjiga postajale su s vremenom sve kreativnije. Mijenjali su naslovnice, mijesali su katolicke i protestantske sadrzaje, knjige su skrivali u tajne pretince. Čak i danas se prilikom restauracije starih seoskih kuća zna pronaći takvo skrovište, davno zaboravljeno.
doc dr. TANJA ŽIGON – CONTRABANDISTS, BANDITS OR SMUGGLERS? REPORTS ON SMUGGLERS AND TERMINOLOGICAL DIFFICULTIES OF SLOVENIAN EDITORS WITH THE EXPANSION OF THE NEW »PROFESSION« ALONG THE RAPALLO BORDER
The goal of this study is to show how Slovenian newspapers reported on smuggling along the Italian-Yugoslav border after the First World War, both along the pre-treaty line of demarcation as well as after the Rapallo border was established in 1920. The study will examine three Slovenian newspapers: the conservative paper Slovenec, the liberal paper Slovenski narod, and the political paper Jutro, which was founded because of disagreement between the old liberals, who published Slovenski narod, and the political current of the young liberals. Based on an examination of these publications, the study will reveal how much attention the media dedicated to this »new« practice that people used to earn money, what the role of the media was in its portrayal of smuggling, and what Theoretical text stance the media took vis-à-vis smuggling. Not least of all, the terminological aspect will be examined because newspaper journalists and editors were apparently unable to take a joint position and use a single term to refer to illegal activities along the border.
dr. MILAN TROBIČ – CONTRABANDISTS AND SMUGGLERS
The territory of Slovenia was always intersected by manifold of state and town boundaries that meant not only the line, but also a challenge for different forms of legal and illegal trade. In particular, contraband and smuggling should not be equated. The author analyzes and divides both forms of illegal trade on the basis of field research as well as written and other documentary sources. Residents of border areas (still) have a specific relationship towards contrabandists, smugglers, and on country and its laws on the other side, especially to those prohibiting a particular activity, and to its repressive bodies that supervise and execute the laws. This relationship vary from case to case.
PETRA JURJAVČIČ – CONTRABANDIST IN THE ČRNI VRH AREA DURING BOTH WARS AND IN THE YEARS AFTER
Črni Vrh with the surrounding hamlets is a coastal village which borders on Inner Carniola. In the past, the area was primarily agricultural while today it is increasingly converting into a commuter belt, although it also owns some farms. People in Črni Vrh met with smuggling to a greater extent during the Italian occupation, when they ended up at the border between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs and Croats (later Yugoslavia). The motives for smuggling were ideological – smuggling of magazines, newspapers and books in Slovenian language as well as survival – in care of daily survival small items such as flour, meat, tobacco, chicory, etc. were smuggled as well as horses and oxen, which represented larger earnings. Smuggling as a means of survival was also maintained in the years after Second World War, when the former Venezia Giulia was divided into Zone A (western part) and Zone B (eastern part).
ROBERT ZENERAL, Društvo »Bez granica« – NIGHT PATHS
The project includes the reconstruction of smuggling paths based on the testimony of residents of Drenove and Pašac with the use of GPS devices. The project team which consist of the members of association »Brez granica« will visit all the paths that residents of Drenova and Pašac used for smuggling with help of witnesses. The paths will be recorded by using the Garmin GPS device and will create interactive GIS system based on Google Maps technology that will be able to visualize collected data. Data will be enriched with photographs from the present as well as from the past. At the moment the collection of old photographs of local people is in progress. Collected photographies are important from the perspective of recognizing individuals, who are shown on them. Former participants will decide themselves whether they want to stay anonymous or presented by their full name.
ROBERT TASNADI – CROSSROADS OF THE IRON CURTAIN
Sándor Goják, served as a border patrol in the 1960s, later founded a small private museum of Iron Curtain in the village called Felsőcsatár in Hungary. He collects objects as proof of passing border and reconstructed the Iron Curtain, border protecting system of the communist era in his village garden. The museum is not only a collection of objects from the era but collection of stories, reminescences of him and his contemporaries.
dr. MELITA RICHTER – MEMORIES OF LIVING WITH/BEYOND THE BORDER
The project Memories of living with/beyond the border intends to focus on the decades of the communication (mainly years ’60 – ’80) between the people belonging to the two different socio-political systems; the one of the socialist Yugoslavia (the Yugoslav way of interpretation of socialism) and the other of the capitalist Italy (the Italian way of capitalism); people who were involved in daily practice of crossing the borders (the »Yugos« in shopping to Trieste and the women from the border Istria’s area employed as labour forces in the domestic ‘pendolary’ experience of working outside the country and daily coming back to their homes in the native country). In this period of intense exchange, meeting and co-existence, a kind of smuggling developed as a survival corrector of the differences between the two systems. But, was it a real smuggling in a classical interpretation or a kind of ‘harmonisation’ of the differences between the two systems and the effort to minimise the gap in the developmental layers between the two historical experiences? Was it the equalisation of the dream to be European, the »western«? Was it the equalisation of the aspiration to the modernity?
doc. dr. STEPHAN STEINER – SMUGGLING BOOKS – SMUGGLING IDEAS
After the triumph of Reformation in major parts of (what later became) Austria during the 16th century, the 17th century was marked by Catholicism recapturing society step by step. In most places Protestantism disappeared completely, but in some areas of Carinthia, Upper Austria and Styria remaining adherents of reformed spirituality went underground, putting on an »official« Catholic mask to the outside while keeping the –then deviant– faith alive amongst their circle of friends and their families. Being forced to live without ministers who they would turn to for answer to questions concerning life and afterlife, those groups were in frantic search for books providing religious information. In this context a new type of smuggling emerged: the so-called »book carriers« (Büchertrager). Most of them were peasants, willing to travel quite far abroad and taking the risk of engaging in illegal action in order to provide the aforementioned Protestant diaspora with printed ammunition needed for adhering to their »heretic« believes. Regardless of whether they held official travel documents or somehow managed to cross the borders illegaly, book carriers made it to the Protestant regions in Germany where they acquired bundles of books, which they smuggled into the Habsburg lands. With the abundant toll stations of the Old Regime, their risk of getting caught was quite high and therefore their techniques for hiding their »hot stuff« became more and more refined. Title pages were changed, prints of Catholic and Protestant provenance were mingled together and the books themselves were often placed in hidden compartments in casks. Most of the book carriers seem to have been highly ideologized themselves, but there certainly was also a financial incentive for their actions as those goods were rare, sought after and therefore profitable for sellers.
There are examples of Protestant peasants who did not just call themselves the proud owners of one book of forbidden content, but of a whole library. Even nowadays, during restoration of old rural buildings such books are discovered in hiding places whose existence was forgotten over time.
dr. DRAGICA ČEČ – SMUGGLING AS A WAY OF SURVIVAL IN THE EARLY MODERN AGE
Although few posts of smuggling of early New Age in Idrija area are already written, the author wishes to place them in the context of combining modes of survival in the early New Age on the evidence of specific economic and living conditions as well as in the context of certain privileges and spatial mobility on the one hand and the immediate surroundings response to such practices on the other hand, and direct on those who were involved in the smuggling networks – both men and women. The phenomenon must be placed in the processes of social control and social discipline of different authority structures (the land – the lords, provincial environments with special authoritative bodies such as Idrija or other more urban areas). Special emphasis will be made on smuggling of 18th century and changes in sentencing policy, which occur through the 18th century. Up to this point findings in the field of historiography (Mira Hodnik, Marija Mlinar Terpin, partly Drago Trpin and Branko Marusic) a new case material – never published before from the archives of Styria in Graz and Vienna will be added, which covers smuggling examples in Idrija. The phenomenon of smuggling will be added to the broader legal, economic and social framework as well as the main theoretical studies on the perception of smuggling and smugglers in the Early New Age.
MIRA HODNIK – SMUGGLERS OF MERCURY ORE IN THE 18TH CENTURY
Mercury mine gave many people the bread in Idrija basin. This piece of bread was often very modest and hardly earned. The miners were earning it in very difficult conditions in the cave, exposed to all accidents and hazards. The miners soon realized that mercury is a precious metal. Thus, individuals begin to deal with smuggling and illegal trade. Despite the fierce control of the mine guards, miners began to carry out of the cave pieces of ore, which were either sold immediately or burned it and then sold mercury. Some of them have tried only to alleviate their poverty, while it meant larger source of earnings for others. Most of them were sucessfuly avoiding the justice. But when superior got on their track, they were handed over to the mining lawer, who have said loud and clear that they violated 13 Article of Carolinian mining law and that they will need to defend their actions. This article law prohibits every removal or sell of ore. Anyone who violated this Article was punish with death and property dispossession. Illegal trade in mercury ore was most spreaded in 18th century. It occupied miners and peasants from all three estate borders (Idrija Cameral, Tolmin and Loka). They had been linked in the right smuggling network. The serfs of Loka Nobility provided Idrija mine with clay jugs, which were used for burning ore. Tolmin´s surfs were employed as miners in the mine or they faced with mercury ore like craftsmen and traders. Thus, one as others have quickly come into contact with Idrija miners, who have supplied the ore from the mine. The article describes in some detail individual cases of theft and punishment of thieves. It was found out that thieves and smugglers were mostly punished by corporal punishment or deportation from home environment. Court proceedings one of the largest theft of mercury ore in the years 1778–1779 ended with the death sentence of two by hanging, nine delinquents with public works at the mine, two were deported from Idrija´s area and some of them were even previledged from punishment. All sentences were imposed and made public in order to remind people that the smuggling and theft is not worth it to deal with.
CRISTIANO BERTI – BLACK TURIN. TALES OF NIGERIAN DIASPORA IN ITALY
Iye Omoge is a road of Turin which runs alongside a park. It recalls the time when the pavement was divided up into work areas by Nigerian sex workers who frequented the area until 2002. The events in this place have been reconstructed thanks to the account given by a woman who used to work there. The full account of her story can be heard in the web version of this project and forms the source from which some phrases have been extracted and inserted into the maps and on which the text accompanying the installation is based. »Iye Omoge« is in Edo, the most common language spoken by Nigerian sex workers on the streets of Italy. The expression can be translated either as »an older woman who behaves like a young girl« or »the mother of a girl who likes looking good and dressing well«. It was the African name for the third class section of an avenue in Turin. There worked women in their thirties, who had left their children in Africa. The young girls who stood at the beginning of the avenue, in the first and second class sections, were making fun of them calling them »Iye Omoge«.
The work was based on the author’s personal involvement in research stories of Nigerian prostitutes as a social worker and therefore it has an extremely social touch.
M. A. RALF ČEPLAK MENCIN – SMUGGLING OF OPIUM FROM AFGANISTAN
For more than two thousand years the Afghan is geostrategic crossroads of civilizations. Afghanistan enriched the world civilization in many ways. Many sage people like Rumi, Ghazali, Zarathustra were born there. Over the last thirty years, Afghanistan become the crossroads of international terrorist violence and has become the main supplier of world drugs production. The economics of opium in Afghanistan is a very complex phenomenon. In the past, it run deeply into the political structures, civil society and the country’s economy. It Included, abused and enslaved the poor rural population: farmers, laborers, small traders, women and children and leaved them to cieftain´s mercy and transnational crime, which dominates in many areas of the south, north and east of the country. Despite the fall of the Talibans and Afghanistan’s efforts for reintegration into the international community, the land stays as one of the largest producers of opiates in the world: opium, morphine and heroin, smuggled through Iran and other Central Asian countries to Europe and the United States. The contribution will highlight the socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of production and smuggling of opium through the available literature and fieldwork.